Obesity is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes, yet little is known about how timing and cumulative exposure of obesity are related to disease risk. The aim of this study was to examine the associations between BMI trajectories, age of onset of obesity and obese-years a product of degree and duration of obesity over early adulthood and subsequent risk of type 2 diabetes. Self-reported weights were collected up to seven times. Incident type 2 diabetes was self-reported. A growth mixture model was used to identify distinct BMI trajectories over the early adult life course. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to examine the associations between trajectories and risk of diabetes.
Age of obesity onset, cumulative obesity exposure over early adulthood and risk of type 2 diabetes
Adult-onset obesity is triggered by impaired mitochondrial gene expression
Mitochondrial gene expression is essential for energy production; however, an understanding of how it can influence physiology and metabolism is lacking. Several proteins from the pentatricopeptide repeat PPR family are essential for the regulation of mitochondrial gene expression, but the functions of the remaining members of this family are poorly understood. We created knockout mice to investigate the role of the PPR domain 1 PTCD1 protein and show that loss of PTCD1 is embryonic lethal, whereas haploinsufficient, heterozygous mice develop age-induced obesity. The molecular defects and metabolic consequences of mitochondrial protein haploinsufficiency in vivo have not been investigated previously. We show that PTCD1 haploinsufficiency results in increased RNA metabolism, in response to decreased protein synthesis and impaired RNA processing that affect the biogenesis of the respiratory chain, causing mild uncoupling and changes in mitochondrial morphology.
Childhood versus adult onset obesity in a comprehensive, multidisciplinary weight reduction program
Orlowski Hospital in Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland. Patients who are slated for bariatric surgery vary in terms of their age at onset of obesity, duration of obesity, and their health complications. Therefore, we aimed to explore a relationship between the age at onset of obesity, metabolic parameters, and health problems in bariatric surgery candidates. A total of unrelated adults with obesity prior to bariatric surgery were included in this study.
Obesity invokes a range of metabolic disturbances, but the transition from a poor to excessive nutritional environment may exacerbate adult metabolic dysfunction. The current study investigated global maternal nutrient restriction during early or late gestation on glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in the adult offspring when lean and obese. Pregnant sheep received adequate 1. Subsequent offspring remained on pasture until 1. All animals were then exposed to an obesogenic environment for 6—7 months and all protocols repeated.